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Saturday, August 3, 2019

Technical Resource - Marc Dekenah

Useful resource on Power Quality, Radio Telemetry, T&M and Interfacing.  Marc's Technical Pages; knowledge-base of Faultlink International, an independent electrical / electronics fault investigation & analysis consultancy.

Technical Resource - Marc Dekenah

Economical Impulse Generator, Measuring in Excess of 1kV, "Soft Earthing" Instruments and A Real LAN twist cable are pages you must read.

Technical Resource - Marc Dekenah

Marc is an independent electrical/electronic fault investigation and analysis consultant with over 25 years of industrial electrics/electronics experience as Consultant, System Engineer, Technical Director, Design Engineer and more.

Connecting Up For Intermittent/Nuisance Trips

"Intermittent trips are circuit breakers rightfully operating because of an unknown cause or fault. Nuisance trips are a breaker deeming a non-existent fault has occurred and, in so doing, operates without need."

FaultLink International - Electrical Power Diagnostics

"Faultlink International is a fully independent broad-range electrical/electronics fault investigation and analysis consultancy."

Earthing Practice and Power Quality

"Earth leakage currents arise mainly from the EMC filters built into electronic equipment with switched mode power supplies. Standards limit the leakage current from non-fixed equipment (i.e. equipment that plugs into a standard socket outlet) to less than 3.5 mA. When a lot of electronic equipment is in use, the total leakage current in the protective conductor can become significant."

Earthing Practice by Trevor Charlton
  • Methods of Earthing
  • Earth Conductors
  • Electrical interference
  • Lightning Protection

Earthing Practice and Power Quality

Power Quality and Utilisation Guide

The PQ E-library is a collection of electronic technical reference documents covering introduction, costs, harmonics, resilience, voltage disturbances, earthing, energy efficiency and renewables/distributed generation. See also - Power Quality

Copper Development Association
  • Educational Resources
  • Computers cannot work without copper
  • Electricity in buildings
Copper Development Association Website for information on Copper and Copper Alloys

Copper Development Association - Resource Library

Copper Development Association provides a range of resources in support of the correct and efficient use of copper and copper alloys for major applications.

Thursday, August 1, 2019

Power Electronics Design Methods

I first saw this practically in the Orthodox Cherokee SMPS. This is where we differentiate from Engineered Products and just Mass Production without following standards. The Cherokee SMPS was a work of art, perfect in all respects.

The Copper Desert or Isolation Land

There is a No Man's Land in PCB. Any good power electronics designer should/will know. Product Safety and HV Isolation, Quality and Reliability all depend on this.

High Energy Circuits

Power Electronics Design Methods

These things don't come overnight, it is a culture, learning, experience and integrity of some of these American Firms. Reliability and Product safety are important. Every human values his life very much. A manufacturer too should appreciate this.

Coming back to isolation, Keep in mind creepage distance, High energy circuits and Low voltage circuits should have clear isolation, use the best insulation. Fire and shock hazard. Mains HV transitions, spikes.

Regulated High Voltage Power Supply

Power supply faces all these, even other areas where a Human Life or Property can be endangered.

HV High Voltage Reliability and Safety

Use a Servo Stabilizer or CVT Constant Voltage Transformer or at least an Isolation Transformer. The First Defense form HV Surges, Spikes.

High Voltage Polyester & Polypropylene Metallized Capacitors in Stepdown Supplies should be Fire Retardant & Self Healing with a MOV too.

Thursday, July 4, 2019

UPS Power Inverter and DC to AC

Learn about Power flow, Sags, Dips, Phase rotation, Harmonics, Flicker and more!

Power Quality Teaching Toy

Power Quality Teaching Toy

Standards

CBEMA - Computer Business Equipment Manufacturer's Association adopted curve IEEE Standard 446 (orange book) curve. Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby power systems for Industrial and Commercial Application."

Sine wave Inverter 800VA

 Here are two Sine wave Inverter circuit applications that can be made into an UPS or Uninterrupted Power Supply. These are used in Home, Office and Shops. It provides emergency power when Mains power goes down or browns out.

Sine wave Inverter 800VA

These also help supply power while switching from Mains Power to In-house Diesel Generation  Power Stations or Integrate with Solar Powered Systems to provide 110 Volts or 220 Volts AC.

DC to AC Pure Sine Wave Inverter

Here are project reports on how to manage the various design needs of a inverter for a power ups. Even Solar Energy systems need inverters to create AC Sine Wave Power Supply from a DC Battery Array.

DC to AC Pure Sine Wave Inverter

Creating a Efficient and Inexpensive Inverter - By Jim Doucet, Dan Eggleston, Jeremy Shaw

This report focuses on DC to AC power inverters, which aim to efficiently transform a DC power source to a high voltage AC source, similar to power that would be available at an electrical wall outlet. Inverters are used for many applications, as in situations where low voltage DC sources such as batteries, solar panels or fuel cells must be converted so that devices can run off of AC power.

Monday, June 10, 2019

WARP Speed IGBT - International Rectifier

IGBTs are voltage-controlled power transistors, that have higher current densities than equivalent high-voltage power MOSFETs. (International Rectifier now with Infineon)

WARP Speed IGBT - International Rectifier

Features Include
  • 2 to 2.5 times the current density of MOSFETs
  • Lower conduction losses at equivalent current rating compared to MOSFETs
  • Reduced current tail for high frequency operation
  • "Positive-only" gate drive
600V Warp 60-150 kHz Discrete IGBT in a TO-247AC package

WARP Speed IGBT - International Rectifier

Lower switching losses allow more cost-effective operation than power MOSFETs up to 150 kHz ("hard switched" mode)

Of particular benefit to single-ended converters and boost PFC topologies 150W and higher

Low conduction losses and minimal minority-carrier recombination make these an excellent option for resonant mode switching as well (up to >>300 kHz)

The IGBT in TO-247 delivers the same efficiency at full loadas the MOSFET in the larger TO-247 package.

Friday, June 7, 2019

AMETEK Programmable Power

Elgar, Sorensen and Cailifornia Instruments Products. A wide range Electronic Loads are available from 75-1800W with both DC and AC input in benchtop, modular and standalone form factors. Other products are DC Power supplies AC Power Sources, Modular AC/DC Units. Services like Compliance Testing and Custom Products.

AMETEK Programmable Power

SLM Family Electronic Loads - The SLM family includes 11 models of fully programmable, single input AC or DC modular electronic loads. DC models are offered to test power supplies, battery chargers, battery discharge, power supply transient response and integration into ATE systems. AC models are ideal to test low power inverters.

 SL series Electronic Loads - Sorensen

SL series Electronic Loads - Sorensen

The DC models support operation in Constant Current, Constant Voltage, Constant Resistance or Constant Power mode as well as a short simulation. Engineers have ultimate control of current waveforms by using either the analog input or CC dynamic mode. An analog input (single input DC models) allows arbitrary current waveforms up to 20kHz with an external 0-10V signal........

AMETEK Programmable Power, Inc.
9250 Brown Deer Road, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

PS300 Series - High Voltage Power Supply - SRS

Industry standard HV Precision Lab power supplies with up to 20 kV output capability. GPIB and RS-232 computer interfaces are standard on all 10 W supplies.

All of the instruments are arc and short-circuit protected with separate programmable hard and soft current limits, making it possible to use them as constant current sources.

PS300 Series - High Voltage Power Supply - SRS

PS300 Series -  High Voltage Power Supply - SRS

The PS310, PS325 and PS350 are dual-polarity, 25 W supplies, while the PS355, PS365, PS370 and PS375 are single-polarity, 10 W supplies. All of the instruments are arc and short-circuit protected with separate programmable hard and soft current limits, making it possible to use them as constant current sources.

Specs Include
  • 1 volt resolution
  • 0.001 % regulation
  • 0.05 % accuracy
  • Programmable limits and trips
  • 0.0015 % ripple
Stanford Research Systems, Inc.
1290-D Reamwood Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 9408, USA.

Monday, May 20, 2019

HPQ-12/25-D48PBH-C - Murata Power Solutions

Here is a  12V, 25A, Single Output Isolated DC/DC Converter, Positive polarity from Murata Power.

HPQ-12/25-D48PBH-C -  Murata Power Solutions



"Advanced automated surface mount assembly and planar magnetics deliver galvanic isolation rated at 2250 Vdc for basic insulation. To power digital systems, the outputs offer fast settling to current steps and tolerance of higher capacitive loads. Excellent ripple and noise specifications assure compatibility to CPU’s, ASIC’s, programmable  logic and FPGA’s. .."

Features Include
  • Industry standard quarter brick 2.3 x 1.45 x 0.49 open frame package
  • Wide range 36 to 75 V DC input voltages with 2250 Volt Basic isolation
  • Up to 300 Watts total output power
  • High efficiency (94.5%) synchronous rectifier topology
  • Stable no-load operation with no required external components

Isolated AC-DC Converters with PFC - Vicor

The PFM is the lowest profile AC-DC solution in the market. Vicor's VIA package enables designers to efficiently package power into their system's thermal management solution.

Isolated AC-DC Converters with PFC - Vicor

For use in: Datacom/Telecom Equipment, LED Lighting, Bench-top Equipment and Industrial AC-DC Power Systems.

Isolated AC-DC Converters with PFC - Vicor

Integrated filtering, transient protection, inrush protection: Simplifies conducted emissions and surge protection design, reduces design risk, faster time to market

High efficiency of up to 92%: Excellent efficiency for such a small and low profile device

Active Power Factor Correction (PFC) exceeding .95 at most line/load conditions (filter dependent):
Meets all agency standards

Voltage, current, and temperature protections: Protects the PFM unit and system

Vicor DC-DC Converters and Power Supplies

Power Supply, AC-DC Converters, Vicor Corporation designs, manufactures and markets modular power components and complete power systems used in the communications, data processing, industrial controls, test equipment, medical and defense electronic markets.

Wednesday, May 8, 2019

Electrical Safety and Clean Power

This is an educative and important guide for Electrical Equipment Safety. This can be also applied partially to Power Electronics and Home Energy Systems. Electronic Equipment also have to be maintained by Calibrating them and protecting them from environmental parameters like dust, grime, direct sunlight, moisture, humidity, sea wind (brine), corrosive fumes and chemicals. They should not be even placed near machines like a big lathe, sub-sonic or low frequency vibrations.

Electrical Safety Testing Reference Guide

Electrical Safety is a Serious Issue Electrical Safety in the workplace is the most important job of an electrical worker. No matter how much training one has received or how much employers try to safeguard their workers, Electrical Safety is ultimately the responsibility of the electrical worker.

Electrical Safety and Clean Power

Electrical Safety Hazards Handbook

Power Studies, Arc-Flash Hazard Labeling, Data Gathering and Inspection, Engineering Services.

The steps to osha electrical safety

Electrical Design, Lighting and most important Earthing or Grounding. Good Reference Articles and Product Reviews.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Inverter S150 from Cotek - Current Solutions

This is a True Sine Wave Output Inverter with a THD 6% Typ. It is DC to AC Conveyor. That means you use Batteries to derive a High Voltage AC like the Mains Utility Supply.

Inverter S150 from Cotek

The output selection of 100/110/120 VAC covers the US region and similar areas. The input being 12VDC / 24VDC.  This is a small 150 Watts unit ideal for Small Solar power systems and lighting.

Inverter S150 from Cotek - Current Solutions

Specifications Include
  • Input & output fully isolation
  • Input polarity reverse / under voltage / over voltage protections
  • Output short circuit / overload / over temperature protections
  • Capable of driving highly reactive and capacitive loads
Current Solutions OEM Power Products

They match your product with the ideal power supply taking into account all the intricate variables..   

OEM Power Supply Resource Inverters, Converters and Adapter. They help you in selecting the proper power supply as they have the experience and the Specialists.

Current Solutions, Inc.
P.O. Box 1538, Land O' Lakes, FL 34639-3929, USA

Pure Sine Power Inverter 2KW - AIMS Power

AIMS Pure Sine Wave Power Inverters provide reliable transformation of DC power from a battery into AC power that can then be used to run lights computers, printers and even medical equipment.

2000 Watt Pure Sine Power Inverter

This is an industrial-grade unit with the ability to withstand surges of up to 6000 watts for 20 seconds, and  it achieves this by virtue of its direct connect terminal block. This feature is one of the more sought-after in the inverter industry, allowing users to surpass the 1,500 watt maximum output of a GFCI outlet that would typically be seen on an inverter.

2000 Watt Pure Sine Power Inverter

The 2000 watt 48 volt low frequency AIMS Power inverter charger transforms DC (direct current) power, produced by solar panels and stored by batteries, into AC (alternating current) electricity that can be used to run most all tools and appliances. This inverter also has a built in AC-to-DC battery converter charger, which allows users to recharge their battery bank from an AC source such as a fuel-powered generator, shore power or a regular outlet at home.

AIMS Power
9736 S. Virginia St. STE A Reno, NV 89511, USA

Manufactures, designs and distributes dc power inverters, chargers, transfer switches, and related green energy products.

Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Battery Boost Circuits

(This is a thread of my Google Talk many years ago - you will be able to notice text communication is quite difficult. sometimes even verbal expression will not specify the need, We need clear drawings and specs)

Sam: I was going thrugh some IC like MAX8880/MAX8881, can u help me with using that with input from my batteries?

dapj: let me see

Sam: It's datasheet says that Supply current [Iin] = 10uA max does it mean it will draw a max of 10uA from my battery?

dapj: it looks like it will work from 2.5 to 12V and it can give you a 5v out 200ma

Sam: Exactly!

dapj: is 5V enough 200mA too, but it cannot boost voltage

Sam: my concern is with my input. What about using rechargeable batteries [4x1, 2100mAh] to act as input to this IC. will it consume 10uA if I do so while my load to the output may vary from 100mA to 200uA

Battery Boost Circuits Max8880

dapj: if you want 5V you need to feed this atleast 5.5V this chip does not consume anything (the uA is Standby consumption )but it is not a voltage doublet or a charge pump

Step-Up/Step-Down Converter Features Ultra-Low Quiescent Current

Sam: OK, I need to feed it anything between 5.5 -12V, Do we get recharge battery near about 2V, 2100mA

dapj - a 12 v battery can be recharged when 11.8V is reached it may charge upto 12.8 V in Li ion

Fast, smart NiCD/NiMh battery charger - The MAX713 is designed for NiCd batteries, while the 712 is for NiMh batteries.

Tuesday, February 5, 2019

CM100E3U-12H - 100A 600V IGBT - Powerex

Each module consists of one IGBT Transistor having a reverse-connected superfast recovery free-wheel diode and an anode-collector connected superfast recovery free-wheel diode. The Powerex Chopper IGBTMOD Modules are designed for use in switching applications.

CM100E3U-12H - 100A 600V IGBT - Powerex

Built in Discrete Super-Fast Recovery (150ns) Free-Wheel Diode.  This is used in Power Product Designs like DC Motor Controls and Boost Regulators.

CM100E3U-12H - 100A 600V IGBT - Powerex

All components and interconnects are isolated from the heat sinking baseplate, offering simplified system  assembly and thermal management.

Features
  • Low Drive Power
  • Low VCE(sat)
  • High Frequency Operation (15-20kHz)
  • Isolated Baseplate for Easy Heat Sinking
Powerex, Inc.
173 Pavilion Lane, Youngwood, PA 1569715697, USA.

Monday, February 4, 2019

MPower Solutions - Battery Management

Custom Battery Packs, Battery Management Systems, Batteries 101, Battery Technology Encyclopaedia and Tutorial. Chargers & Charging, Battery Management and Cell Chemistries.

MPower Solutions - Battery Management

The site contains a comprehensive knowledge base about battery technology, battery applications, chargers and ancillary equipment.

MPower is an independent service company providing specialist design and manufacturing services to meet the portable power requirements of the European electronics industry.

MPower Solutions -Engineering and Manufacturing

Fuel cells have been around longer than most batteries - the principle of the fuel cell was discovered in 1839 by Sir William Grove. They generate electricity from the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen to form water in a process which is the reverse of electrolysis.

Battery and Energy Technologies

The fuel cell relies on a basic oxidation/reduction reaction, as with a battery, but the reaction takes place on the fuel rather than the electrodes. The fuel cell produces electricity as long as the cell receives a supply of fuel and can dispose of the oxidized old fuel .

Woodbank Communications Ltd
Woodbank, South Crescent Road , Queens Park Chester, CH4 7AU United Kingdom.

High Efficiency Step Down Isolated Supply

60W AC-DC adapter, synchronous rectification, fixed frequency current mode PWM controller. Very Low Quiescent Burden, Efficiency above 85%. That's Green.

STMicroelectronics - EVALSTSR30-60W. Synchronous rectification using L6668 and STSR30.

EVALSTSR30-60W: 60W AC-DC adapter
EVALSTSR30-60W: 60W AC-DC adapter

The converter works in both Continuous and Discontinuous conduction mode depending on the input voltage (the circuit has a wide input voltage range) and the output load. The 68-kHz switching frequency provides a good compromise between the transformer size and the harmonics of the switching frequency, optimizing input filter.

High Efficiency Step Down Isolated Supply

The input section includes protection elements (varistor, fuse and NTC for inrush current limiting), a standard Pi-filter for EMC suppression, a bridge and an electrolytic bulk capacitor as the front-end AC-DC converter. The transformer is a layer type, uses a standard ETD34 ferrite core and is designed to have a reflected voltage of 95V. The power MOS is a 700V - 1Ω and a transil clamp network is used for leakage inductance demagnetization.

From STMicroelectronics

Tuesday, January 1, 2019

Schott Magnetics - Inductors Transformers Coils

Schott Magnetics designs and manufactures custom and standard inductors, transformers, coils, toroid magnetics, chokes and custom designed magnetic components.

Schott Magnetics - Inductors Transformers Coils

Cost effective transformers and inductors for the power supply, avionics, military, medical, test & measurement, industrial, automotive and commercial applications.

History - "Schott began as a part-time home business in 1946 by its founder, Oscar A. Schott. Due to Oscar’s unique talents in electrical engineering, many companies approached Oscar to build prototype transformers and coils. In 1951, Schott became a full time corporation."

 SMU1330 Series Drum Core Inductors

SMU1330 Series Drum Core Inductors

High energy storage and low resistance, Ideal for DC-DC step-up or step-down conversion, Reliable surface mounting, flat top for pick and place.

Schott Sales and Engineering
210 St. Olaf Ave, N. Canby, MN 56220, USA.

High-Voltage High-Power IGBT

IGBT module from  Hitachi. The new IGBT module makes high energy efficiency and silent operation of inverters possible. It has High thermal fatigue durability. It is a High speed and low loss IGBT module.

High-Voltage High-Power IGBT

Low noise due to soft and fast recovery diode. The driving power is less as the MOS gate input capacitance is very low. The modules are very reliable and durable. The heatsink has a Isolation between terminals and base.

High-Voltage High-Power IGBT

From 1700V to 6500V,  High Power Density, Low Inductance, Scalable, Easy Paralleling, Standard and High Isolation Package.

The Hitachi Power Semiconductor Devices mark a new era of Power electronics by High-Power IGBT modules, High-Voltage ICs and Power diodes.

Induction Heating - Cooker Project

Single plate induction cooker demonstration board Uses ST7LITE09 and STGW40NC60WD (40 A, W series).

The design is entirely controlled by a simple ST7FLITE09Y0 8-bit microcontroller, which provides the PWM driving signals, communicates information to the user interface, and drives the fan and relay control to the plate feedback.

With Single Voltage Flash Memory, Data Eeprom, Adc, Timers, Spi Active - ST7LITE09Y0 8-Bit Mcu

Induction Heating - Cooker Project

A single plate induction cooker with the ST7FLITE09Y0 PDF - Excerpt From Application Note above AN2383 Application note -

Put simply, an induction cooking element (what on a gas stove would be called a "burner") is a special kind of transformer.